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    當前位置: 首頁 ? 茶知識 ? 茶葉常識 ? 正文

    茶馬古道:普洱茶文化之魂

    放大字體??縮小字體 發布日期:2017-04-30??來源:祥源茶??瀏覽次數:17999 ??關注:加關注

    茶馬古道

     


     

    馬古道是存在于中國西南地區,以馬幫為主要交通工具的民間國際商貿通道,是中國西南民族經濟文化交流的走廊。茶馬古道是一個非常特殊的地域稱謂,是一條世界上自然風光最壯觀,文化最為神秘的旅游絕品線路,全長近四千多公里,距今已有一千三百多年的歷史,具有深厚的歷史積淀和文化底蘊,是古代西藏和內地聯系必不可少的橋梁和紐帶,它蘊藏著開發不盡的文化遺產,有著悠久的歷史文化意義。

     



    歷史探源

     

     

    據史料記載,中國茶葉最早向海外傳播,可追溯到南北朝時期。當時中國商人在與蒙古毗鄰的邊境,通過以茶易物的方式,向土耳其輸出茶葉。

    隋唐時期,隨著邊貿市場的發展壯大,加之絲綢之路的開通,中國茶葉以茶馬交易的方式,經回紇及西域等地向西亞、北亞和阿拉伯等國輸送,中途輾轉西伯利亞,最終抵達俄國及歐洲各

    國。

     

    從唐代開始,歷代統治者都積極采取控制茶馬交易的手段。唐肅宗至德元年(公元756年)至千年元年,在蒙古的回紇地區驅馬茶市,開創了茶馬交易的先河。

    北宋時代,茶馬交易主要在陜甘地區,易馬的茶葉就地取于川蜀,并在成都、秦州(今甘肅天水)各置榷茶和買馬司。

     


     

    元代時,官府廢止了宋代實行的茶馬治邊政策。

    明代,繼續元之驛站制度,對有破損者限期恢復,與此同時,明朝對驛道上的要津、渡口之管理有所強化。明朝在雅州、碉門設置茶馬司,每年有數百萬斤茶葉經由康區而入西藏,作為主要“茶道”的川藏線,經濟價值大增。明太祖洪武年間,上等馬一匹最多換茶葉120斤。明萬歷年間,則定上等馬一匹換茶三十篦,中等二十,下等十五。明代文學家湯顯祖在《茶馬》詩中這樣寫道:“黑茶一何美,羌馬一何殊。”“羌馬與黃茶,胡馬求金珠。”足見當時茶馬交易市場的興旺與繁榮。

    至清代,茶馬治邊政策有所松弛,私茶商人較多,在茶馬交易中則費茶多而獲馬少。清朝雍正十三年,官營茶馬交易制度終止。

    茶馬交易治邊制度從隋唐始,至清代止,歷經歲月滄桑近千年。在茶馬市場交易的漫長歲月里,中國商人在西北、西南邊陲,用自己的雙腳,踏出了一條崎嶇綿延的茶馬古道。

    因社會動蕩、戰爭、清政府腐敗等種種原因,茶馬古道伴隨著普洱茶產業的迅速衰落,也被廢棄了。

     


     

     


     

    名稱由來

     

     

    1990年的夏天,云南大學木霽弘教授等人來到了川滇藏的三角地帶,他們要印證茶馬之道的真實存在,并在沿途進行一些學術考察。

    他們這次行程經受了各種意想不到的考驗,隨時都要面對死亡的危險,深山的洞穴中,陡峭的巖石下,一堆堆白骨,提醒著他們行走此路的艱難。最后,他們用三個多月的時間,步行兩千多公里,翻越幾十座4700米以上的大雪山,跨越金沙江、怒江、瀾滄江等數十條激流險灘,對滇、藏、川大三角地帶的語言文化作了系統的考察,收集記錄了近百萬字的資料,拍下了三千多張紀實照片,錄下上百盤民間故事和音樂磁帶,采集了上千個實物標本。

    結束時,他們把亞洲大陸上這條龐大的、以茶葉為紐帶的古道網絡命名為茶馬古道。

     


     

    歷史意義

     

    隨著現代交通的興起,這條自唐宋以來延續達一千多年并在漢、藏之間發揮過重要聯系作用的茶馬古道雖已喪失了昔日的地位與功能,但它作為中華民族形成過程的一個歷史見證,作為今天中華多民族大家庭的一份珍貴的歷史文化遺產卻依然熠熠生輝,并隨著時間的流逝而日益凸顯其意義和價值。

    茶馬古道,這四個字,讓普洱茶從幾近湮滅的歷史塵煙中,飄出了文化的茶香。

    二百多年間,世序更替,人事浮沉,茶馬古道從始至終都在見證普洱茶歷史的變遷。茶馬古道,最終成為了普洱茶文化的靈魂!

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