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    當前位置: 首頁 ? 茶文化 ? 中華茶史 ? 正文

    趙匡胤 廢座撤茶 怎樣能在文臣面前立威呢?

    放大字體??縮小字體 發布日期:2017-07-03??來源:網絡??瀏覽次數:40815 ??關注:加關注

    始盛于唐,至宋影響力達到頂峰,不僅成待客“必需品”,更發展成一種博大精深的文化。而推動者恰是 宋太祖 趙匡胤 。

    如果說“ 杯酒釋兵權 ”解除了武將對趙家皇權的威脅,那宋太祖之前悄無聲息“廢座撤茶”則是在文臣面前立威。正、野史都說到這事,960年二月,“黃袍加身”的趙匡胤召宰相 范質 等議政。召見之初設座賜茶,與之“坐而論道”。

     

     

    網絡配圖

    范質行禮完畢剛要坐下,趙匡胤就說:“朕最近有些眼花,看不清東西,煩請愛卿將奏折拿到朕面前。”范質上前遞折子的空當,早已受命的內侍便把宰相的座位與茶全部撤走。范質回身欲坐,發現座位與茶都不翼而飛,只好站著搭話。從此,大臣們上殿議政再也不能與 皇帝 平起平坐 。

    宋太祖這一舉動,對大臣們而言,皇帝賜座賞茶就成了榮耀、就是給面子。如此一來,得到皇帝所賜御茶便成大臣夢寐以求的事。皇帝要的就是這個效果,因而“賜茶”成了 施恩 臣子的妙招。

    宋王鞏《甲申聞見二錄補遺》記載了 宋神宗 在議政的崇政殿召見時任太子少師的張方平時就“賜座啜茶”。當然,與議政殿賜一杯茶相比,大文豪 蘇東坡 就更幸運。王鞏《隨手雜錄》說, 宋哲宗 曾經派 太監 秘密賜茶給蘇東坡。賜茶的使者極其神秘地對蘇東坡說:“某出京師,辭官家,官家曰:‘辭了娘娘來。’某辭 太后 殿,復到官家處,引某至一柜子旁,出此一角,密語:‘賜予 蘇軾 ,不得令人知。’出所賜,乃茶一斤,封題皆御筆。”這個故事。

     

     

    網絡配圖

    至今讀來 令人捧腹 ,不過從側面也反映了當時貢茶之珍貴,連皇帝都把它當成一等一的好東西。蘇東坡得到這樣珍貴的賞賜后,并沒有獨吞,還分贈給朋友,的確是豪邁慷慨,加上他文學造詣,稱“千古一人”也實不為過。

    皇帝賜茶、大臣分茶、文人詠茶,喝茶習慣遍行于宋境,由此進化出了一系列與茶有關的習俗,“非茶不交,點湯送客”。宋林駉《古今源流至論續集》卷四謂:“迨至我朝,往往與鹽利相等,賓主設禮,非茶不交。”賓主對坐,桌案上總會擺著一副茶具、熱著一碗茶。

     

     

    網絡配圖

    至于喝茶規矩,宋朱彧《萍州可談》卷一“茶湯俗”條說得 明明白白 :“今世俗客至則啜茶,去則啜湯。湯取藥材甘草者屑之,或溫或涼,未有不用甘草者,此俗遍天下。” 宋代 迎客喝茶,送客喝用甘草香藥熬煎的湯水,即所謂“點湯送客”,這一習俗延續到元末。 清朝 以后,茶飲取代了甘草藥湯,送客時,端起茶杯就行。

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