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    當前位置: 首頁 ? 茶文化 ? 中華茶史 ? 正文

    唐朝之后為何還用“荼”指“茶”

    放大字體??縮小字體 發布日期:2017-06-28??來源:北京晚報??瀏覽次數:40405 ??關注:加關注

    在如今人們生活中,“”已經成為極為常見的字眼。但是在唐代以前,少有“茶”的字眼。有一種普遍的說法認為,在古代,“茶”與“荼”是一體的,“荼”即是“茶”。但也有人認為,古時“荼”的涵義要比“茶”廣。不管哪種說法正確,可以肯定的是,唐代中期陸羽《茶經》刊印之后,“茶”字便廣泛流行起來,而且其意義也同今天的茶類似。

    有意思的是,“茶”字廣泛使用后,唐代及其之后的有時還會用“荼”來表示“茶”,例如,在清代甚至當代的書法作品中,仍然能夠看到以“荼”指“茶”的現象。這又是怎么回事呢?

    晚清吳昌碩書帖《角茶軒》,是筆者近日閱讀所得,又延伸閱讀了李清照《金石錄后序》,略有所獲。

    吳昌碩書帖《角茶軒》,篆書橫披,行草落款,系光緒乙巳年春應友人孝謙之請所書。其下兩款落款,其中款對主題“角茶”的典故做了說明,而另外一個落款對“茶”字的字形作了說明:“茶字不見許書,唐人于頔茶山詩刻石,茶字五見皆作荼。缶又記(鈐印)。”

    于頔何許人?于頔是唐憲宗時宰相,生年不詳,卒于818年。與著述《茶經》的陸羽(733年-804年)、詩僧皎然是同時代人,但應比陸羽年輕。

    于頔擅書法,寫有“茶山詩”并鐫刻于石碑,即吳昌碩在《角茶軒》落款中提到的“茶山詩刻石”。吳又說:“茶字五見皆作荼”,是說于頔詩中出現的五個“茶”字,全刻作“荼”。并說:“茶字不見許書”,“許書”,指東漢許慎編著、解釋字體來源的《說文解字》,這是中國第一部字典,而“茶”這個字在《說文解字》中是沒有的。

    漢字在形成之初沒有“茶”字,常用“荼”字指代“茶”。然而,除當作茶飲的含義之外,“荼”字還有“苦菜”、“荼毒”、“茅蘆白花”等多種釋義。茶的應用發展到以飲用為主的時期,“荼”字顯然不能夠概括茶在社會生活中出演的角色。為與含義廣泛的“荼”加以區別,文人創造出了專指的“茶”字。

    另據清代學者顧炎武考證:“按茶荈之茶,與荼苦之荼本是一字,古時未分……愚游泰山岱岳觀覽唐碑題銘,見大歷十四年(779年)刻‘荼藥’字,貞元十四年(798年)刻‘荼宴’字,皆作荼……至會昌元年(841年),柳公權書玄秘塔碑銘、大中九年裴休書圭峰禪師碑茶毗字,俱減此一畫,則此字變于中唐以下也。”(見《日知錄》)

    據清《義疏》記:“今‘茶’字古作‘荼’,至唐陸羽著《茶經》,始減一畫作‘茶’。”也就是說,到了中唐時期,陸羽已在書寫和使用“茶”字。不過,沒有更多的證據證明“茶”字是陸羽一人所創。或者可以這么認為,書法、碑刻中使用“茶”字在“中唐以下”,而書籍刻本中使用“茶”字則在“中唐以前”。

    《茶經》寫作修訂歷時14載,大約成書于775年(也有說法認為,陸羽于765年完成《茶經》,775年以后再度修改,780年后定稿),傳播數十年后,出任湖州刺史的于頔(于頔791年任湖州刺史,且根據史料分析,其茶山詩是在任湖州刺史期間所刻)為何還用“荼”字呢?

    這說明在當時,可能“茶”與“荼”兩字并用。另外一種解釋,筆者認為與出版技術的發展有關。東漢蔡倫造紙,隋唐有了雕版印刷,不必像先秦時期必得仰仗鐘鼎碑石來記錄歷史事件。此時,碑刻更多地轉化為金石欣賞藝術,所以,于頔的“茶山詩刻石”作“荼”字,是一種藝術手法,體現的是藝術家的一種復古情懷。

    唐代以后的宋元明書畫,延至晚清民國,都有藝術家以“荼”指“茶”。吳昌碩書法《角茶軒》中的“茶”也是多一畫,寫作“荼”。甚而當代不少書法家在寫“茶”字時也會寫作“荼”。可見,在表達“茶”的意思,書畫家或出于審美之故,多用“荼”,而文人學者出于文化傳播的準確性,則統一用“茶”。

    順便提一句,說到現當代藝術家用“荼”字,大家最熟知的要數吳冠中的筆名:吳荼茶。根據吳冠中年表可知,1938年,吳冠中在國立藝專預科結業,升入本科學油畫。這一年,他開始用“吳荼茶”為筆名,后改為“荼”,成為畫作上的簽名。但何以用“荼”為別名,吳冠中并未給過解釋。

    有藝術家分析,曾經留學法國的吳冠中,對梵高尤為崇拜。吳冠中曾經說過,“梵高用紅色畫樹,那旋轉奔放的運筆直指夜空,那強烈豪邁的情感,那沉著、濃重的紅色達到了如火如荼的妙境。” 或許可從這段話中看出吳冠中用“荼”為筆名的端倪,當然,此時的“荼”似乎與“茶”的關系不大了。

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