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    當前位置: 首頁 ? 茶文化 ? 中華茶史 ? 正文

    古畫上的人是怎么喝茶的?

    放大字體??縮小字體 發布日期:2017-01-13??來源:茶文化??瀏覽次數:20899 ??關注:加關注

    畫,在中國藝術文化里有著獨特的藝術魅力。文人墨客可以以茶來表明自己淡泊的心志、也可以用茶來悟禪得道。在我國繪畫史上,有許多關于用茶、品茶、斗茶的圖畫,表現了我國茶人積極樂觀、謙虛禮讓的精神,也就是 “和”的精神。

    《韓熙載夜宴圖》局部 [五代]顧閎中《韓熙載夜宴圖》絹本,寬28.7厘米,長335.5厘米,收藏于北京故宮博物院。


     

    琵琶聲起,江南寂靜的夜被錚然撥動,夜宴開始了。

    畫中,條幾上茶壺、茶碗和茶點,散放賓客面前,主人坐榻上,賓客有坐有站,左邊一婦人彈琴,賓客們一邊品茶,一邊聽琴。

    韓熙載原為北海(今山東濰坊)人,出身官宦名門,投南唐后屢獻國策卻不被信用,面臨北宋大兵壓境,茍延殘喘的后主李煜想用他為相,自知回天無力的韓熙載為避免南唐后主李煜的猜疑,天天歡宴,夜夜聲色,藉此表示對于政治了無興趣。李后主聞聽后派出畫家顧閎中和周文矩夜入韓府了解實情,畫家以韓熙載夜宴的場景默畫成圖,李后主看后,唏噓之余,發出了“雕欄玉砌應猶在,只是朱顏改”的慨嘆。

    《調琴啜茗圖卷》(聽琴圖) [唐]周昉

    《調琴啜茗圖卷》, 絹本設色、縱28厘米、 橫75.3厘米,描繪唐代仕女彈古琴飲茶的生活情景,現由美國納爾遜·艾京斯藝術博物館藏。

     


     

    圖中共畫五人,中間三人為貴族婦女,一人于石上調琴,另兩位一邊啜茗,一邊側耳靜聽琴聲。兩側侍者,一人手端茶托,一人執茶杯。人物神念嫻靜端莊。人物組合有坐有立,疏密得體,富有變化,畫中的婦女豐頰曲眉,濃麗多姿,整個畫面表現出唐代貴族婦女悠閑自得的情態。

    《斗茶圖卷》 [南宋]劉松年《斗茶圖卷》著錄于《石渠寶笈二編·重華宮藏》。


     

    斗茶最早出現于唐代中期。據無名氏《梅妃傅》載:“開元年間,(唐)玄宗與妃斗茶。顧諸王戲曰:‘此梅精也。吹白玉笛,作驚鴻舞,一座光輝。斗茶今又勝我點。’”這是斗茶的最早記錄。不過,在歷史上最講究、最熱衷于斗茶的則要算宋代,斗茶之風在宋代達到高峰。

    宋代唐庚的《斗茶記》寫得較為詳細: 二三人聚集在一起,獻出各自所藏的珍茗,烹水沏茶,互斗次第。到了南宋,不僅名茶產地及寺院有斗茶之舉,就連民間也普遍開展。南宋畫家劉松年的《斗茶圖卷》更是生動地展現了集市買賣茶葉民間斗茶的景象。這種斗茶,很有些現時評茶的味道,并與茶葉市場交易聯系在一起。

    《斗茶圖卷》著錄于《石渠寶笈二編 重華宮藏》。此圖卷描繪的是民間斗茶情景:幾個茶販在買賣之余,巧遇或相約一起,息肩于樹蔭下,各自拿出絕招,斗試較量,個個神態專注,動作自如,還原了當時的斗茶場景。

    《陸羽烹茶圖》(元) 趙原

    《陸羽烹茶圖》屬紙本水墨,縱27厘米,橫78厘米,現由中國臺灣省臺北故宮博物院藏。

     


     

    這幅畫表現了唐代著名茶人陸羽的故事。

    陸羽一直是淡泊清高的文人崇拜的偶像。此圖為水墨畫,山石皴法側筆圓轉,樹點粗厚,畫風學董源而有所變化。以陸羽烹茶為題材,用水墨山水畫反映優雅恬靜的環境,遠山近水,有一山巖平緩突出水面,一軒宏敞,茅檐數座,屋內峨冠博帶、倚坐榻上者即為陸羽,前有一童子焙爐烹茶。

    畫家自題名為《陸羽烹茶圖》,并賦詩一首:“山中茅屋是誰家?兀坐閑吟到日斜。俗客不來山鳥散,呼童汲水煮新茶。”圖文并茂,鑄造了士大夫煙霞痼疾與泉石膏肓的精神世界,也從一個側面折射了元代的社會思潮。

    《惠山茶會圖》局部 [明]文征明

    《惠山茶會圖》縱22厘米,橫67厘米,現藏于北京故宮博物院。

     


     

    代正德十三年(1518年),清明時節,春意萌發。時年四十九歲的文征明,和好友蔡羽、王守、王寵、湯珍等人,結伴游覽無錫惠山,在“天下第二泉”的二泉亭下,“注泉于王氏鼎,三沸而三啜之”,他們品茶暢談、吟詩唱和。事后,文征明畫了一幅《惠山茶會圖》,描繪此次聚會。

    一三九一年,明太祖朱元璋下詔廢團茶,改制芽茶,自此中國的茶藝由唐代用來煎煮的茶餅到宋代用來拂擊的茶末,到明代演變為用來沖泡的茶葉。

    明代茶葉制作方法的變動,引動茶具的轉變,茶席布置趨向隱逸清靜。嗜好茗飲、品鑒名茶,研討茶藝成為文人雅士所追求的一種時代風尚。品茶成為明代文人追求生活情趣、在日常生活中舒放性靈的重要手段。

    明代以前的繪畫作品中也有不少“茶”元素的參與,但是卻唯獨沒有明代這種專門的以茶事或以茶會為題材的作品,文人雅集活動到明代以后出現了比較明顯的變化,大量“茶會”題材的繪畫作品問世。

    《烹茶洗硯圖》(清) 錢慧安

    《烹茶洗硯圖》為立軸,紙本,設色,縱62.1厘米,橫59.2厘米。收藏于上海博物館。

     


     

    洗硯魚吞墨,烹茶鶴避煙

    這幅作品的背景選擇著力地突出了一個“雅”字。畫中主人公置身在一個蒼松掩映之下的水榭當中,憑欄遠眺,給人以高雅脫俗之感。榭中的琴案上擺放著一張瑤琴,旁邊的圖書、茶具、鼎彝、賞瓶一一陳列,井然有序。

    院中兩個小童,一個正蹲在水榭下的石階上,小心翼翼地刷洗著一方石硯,幾尾金魚圍攏過來,在水中歡快地游著;另一個小童正站在火爐邊烹茶,紅泥小火爐上架著一把東坡提梁壺,爐邊還放有一個色彩古雅的茶葉罐,而這時的小童正側頭觀看一只飛起的仙鶴。此情此景正畫出了那幅名聯所描繪的意境:“洗硯魚吞墨;烹茶鶴避煙”。

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